Lowering backward Raman and Brillouin scattering in waveguide Raman wavelength converters

Abstract : Background: Liquid filled hollow core fiber Raman wavelength converters are devices enabling to red-shift the wavelength of laser beams delivered by either fixed wavelength or tunable lasers. Most of the reported converters operate in a pulsed regime with pulse durations comprised between a few hundreds of picoseconds and up to a few nanoseconds, and energy of a few micro-Joules. However, and depending on the pulse duration, the optimization of Raman converters turns to be rather challenging since the desired forward Raman scattering may compete with counter-propagating nonlinear effects like Raman and Brillouin back-scatterings. The Brillouin back-scattering is especially hard to cancel since the Brillouin gains are usually larger than the Raman gains. Techniques have already been investigated but are not fully satisfactory. Our aim in this paper is to propose a technique to optimize the Raman forward scattering and to minimize these back-scattering effects. Methods: We compare the interaction lengths in the forward and backward directions in the above-mentioned temporal regimes. If the fiber length is higher that the backward effective length of interaction then the backward effects should decrease at the benefit of the forward Raman scattering. Numerical simulations enable to estimate more precisely how long the fiber should be to get large Raman conversion efficiency and negligible Brillouin scattering. Results and discussion: To validate this technique we build two identical Raman converters differing only by the fiber lengths (0.5 m and 1.5 m). We present the experimental setup. The experimental results are confronted to the numerical simulations. As expected increasing the fiber length strongly decreases the Brillouin scattering. Conclusions: We have proposed a simple and efficient solution to minimize Brillouin back-scattering in Raman wavelength converters by optimizing the fiber length. The experimental demonstration was conducted with low energy (≈ 6 μJ) but the energies should scale with the fiber effective area if more energy is needed, without affecting the conversion efficiencies.
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Journal of the European Optical Society : Rapid publications, European Optical Society, 2017, 13, pp.31. 〈10.1186/s41476-017-0059-3〉
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Min Châu Phan Huy, Philippe Delaye, Gilles Pauliat, Nicolas Dubreuil, Frédéric Gérôme, et al.. Lowering backward Raman and Brillouin scattering in waveguide Raman wavelength converters. Journal of the European Optical Society : Rapid publications, European Optical Society, 2017, 13, pp.31. 〈10.1186/s41476-017-0059-3〉. 〈hal-01626731〉

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