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Internal structure of basalt flows: insights from magnetic and crystallographic fabrics of the La Palisse volcanics, French Massif Central

Abstract : We present a new interpretation of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics in basaltic lava flows based on the detailed study of magnetic mineralogy and silicate crystallographic fabric of a Quaternary lava flow from the French Massif Central (La Palisse). We consider the model of AMS fabric imbrication between magnetic foliation and flow surface, as initially proposed for dykes. At the two sampling sites, the concordance between the flow direction deduced from the AMS foliation and that deduced from field observations indicates that the imbrication model could apply to the lava flows. However, the flow senses inferred fromAMSare systematically opposed between the two sampling sites suggesting permutations between K1 and K3 AMS axes, a configuration referred to as inverse fabric. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements show strong lattice-preferred orientations (LPO) for plagioclase, especially the (010) plagioclase plane, which tends to be parallel to the flow. Clinopyroxene LPO remains less marked than plagioclase LPO, whereas titanomagnetite does not display a significant LPO. Comparison between magnetic and crystallographic fabrics suggests that the AMS fabric of the lava flow results from the distribution of titanomagnetite grains, which is in turn controlled by the fabric of the silicate framework. Magnetic hysteresis parameters and anisotropy of remanent magnetization (ARM) measurements exclude a significant contribution from single-domain grains, often called upon to explain inverse magnetic fabrics. The origin of the observed inverse magnetic fabric may relate to the dip of the palaeosurface, which is the only remarkable difference between the two sampling sites. AMS appears as a good tool to determine the direction of basaltic lava flows and coupling with local crystallographic fabric data provides a valuable control of relationships between magnetic fabrics and flow and thus contributes to better constrain the AMS signature of lava flows.
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T. Boiron, Jerôme Bascou, Pierre Camps, E.C. Ferré, C. Maurice, et al.. Internal structure of basalt flows: insights from magnetic and crystallographic fabrics of the La Palisse volcanics, French Massif Central. Geophysical Journal International, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2013, 193 (2), pp.585-602. ⟨10.1093/gji/ggs115⟩. ⟨hal-00903561v2⟩

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